Giclee & Certificates of Authenticity.


n the late 1980s Jack Duganne coined the name Giclée.  Giclée is based on the French word gicleur, the technical term for a jet or a nozzle and the verb coming from it gicler (to squirt out). Inks used in Giclée printing are are pigment based inks and are termed archival inks because of their long life.  Pigment-based inks are more water and UV resistant than traditional inks. Many museums use Giclée prints because of their archival quality.  Giclée prints are said to have a lifetime of one hundred years plus. The paper has to be at least 250gsm in weight and have as little acid as possible in its fibres.  When prints are handled white cotton gloves are used to stop the acid on the fingers touching the paper. Additionally acid free mount board and adhesive should also be used when framing the print.

Printing Process

Firstly, the original is digitally scanned or photographed professionally.  Then the image is tweaked on the computer to colour match the original as close as possible. Then print tests are done (an artist proof- sometimes sold as AP I,II,III,IV).  The process of going back to the digital image and tweaking slightly after each proof until it is as close as possible can take hours.  I always work closely with the printers on this process.

I use a fine art printer recognised by the Fine Art Trade Guild for my Giclée prints and use paper that is as close to my original paper in weight, texture and colour as possible. My preference is to use Hahnemühle fine art paper.

Obviously, a print is never exactly the same as an original due to the fact that pigment inks used for Giclée have a restricted colour gamut . This means that the sub-tones of the original may not be as well defined in the print.

I am meticulous with my prints. In some cases when the digital scan or proofs can not pick up fine detail of my work I will hand-embellish (add to each print individually).

Certificate of Authenticity

ach of my limited edition prints come with a certificate of authenticity which shows the artwork, its dimensions and it is signed and numbered by me. On Editions that are fifty or under  I use a hologram system by the producers of the paper I use.

The Hahnemühle Certificate of Authenticity protects the security and genuineness of the limited edition on Hahnemühle paper and to reduces the risk of forgery. Each certificate is made of deckle edged mould made paper with a Hahnemühle watermark and fluorescent security fibres.  A serialised numbered hologram is added. A second, identically numbered hologram is then applied to the reverse side of the artwork or frame.

The combination of certificate and hologram assures that each Certificate of Authenticity relates to one particular piece of art.  I also keep a copy of every piece I sell to for your insurance purposes.


UV Glass

here different degrees of  UV glass and a number of companies produce them. My framer generally uses Tru Vue but there is also Artglass produced by Groglass. I would always recommend talking to a professional framer and getting their advice on your framing and glazing needs.

All works on paper need some sort of protection from dust, sunlight and temperature change.

The main ones I would recommend are: Museum Glass, This is the best-quality glass that you can get. It blocks out 99% UV rays, it eliminates reflection so it is virtually invisible and allows you to see the artwork at its very best. It optimises the colours in the artwork.

Conservation Glass
This glass is the most frequently used glass in custom framing – it blocks 99% UV rays, it has no ripple effect on glass surface.